The Hale family’s first sight of their new home is grim and constrained, comprising small, brick houses dotted among ‘many-windowed factories’, a new sight at the time.

‘Quickly they were whirled over long, straight, hopeless streets of regularly-built houses, all small and of brick.  Here and there a great oblong many-windowed factory stood up, like a hen among her chickens, puffing out black “unparliamentary” smoke, and sufficiently accounting for the cloud which Margaret had taken to foretell rain.’

Source: Elizabeth Gaskell, North and South (London: John Murray, 1925), p. 66

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