Though this clearly derives from the French orgueil, I had never seen it in this anglicised version. No wonder, according to the dictionary it had become rare by the 16th century until it was revived by the Victorian writers Robert Southey and Sir Walter Scott as a historical archaism, and subsequently affected by 19th century journalists. Virginia Woolf must have picked it up on the tail end of the Victorian era into which she was born.
… ‘for there was an orgulous credulity about him which was pleasant enough.’
Source: Virginia Woolf, Orlando, ed. Rachel Bowlby, Oxford: World’s Classics, 1992, p. 46